Breeding between wolves and dogs is not a new issue, the most of these experiments failed. Literature is writing about the hybrids of First Instance (F1) as a bad dog, more aggressive than wolves. Knowledge, however, were inadequate and based on knowledge of zoologists. Wolves were also reputed to be a beast who kill anything and anyone... These data were very fragmented. Mr. Ing. Karel Hartl had the idea of comparing the results in training dogs and their behavior... But he need to know the ethology of their ancestor, who was at that time so cursed. Therefore, Mr. Hartl decided to obtain new and reliable information on the wolf and dog crosses ...
The aim of the first experiments was to determine the properties of these hybrids bred in captivity. What is their fertility, where they differ from their ancestors, and vice versa, which features wolves are their own. Investigated the differences between dogs, wolves and crosses - conditioned reflexes, biological characteristics, social behavior... He was also interested in finding out what benefits and drawbacks can bring the cross to breeding of German Shepherds. Their professional performances were in fact limited. It was mainly short live, ending in about 8 years, susceptibility to disease, urinary tract and kidneys, particularly at altitudes above 800m, low endurance (can not run more than 50km, long recovery time - more than 80 hours,...) as well as significant morbidity and mortality of pupps in mass-breeding, ...
In the former Czechoslovakia in 1955, was prepared inter-species experiment, which was to confirm or rebut the presumption, that it is possible to breed puppies from mating a female wolf and male dog, and wolf male and a female dog also. Wolf is the closest anatomical physique to shepherds, who would represent the ideal work type. Most of the offspring had prerequisite for further breeding. It was agreed further crossing and later joined a number of attempts and crossings. (photo: Mr.Hartl, Mr.Rosík, Slovenská kynológia, história a súčasnosť).
In the first mating in kennel "z Pohraniční stráže" (of the Border Guard) in the Libějovice u Vodňan (now Czech Republic) was the mating of one year old wolf female Brita from Mr. Haják and 2 dogs of the breed German Shepherd, wolf-gray color, in breeding already used. Had different natures - one was a quiet, well-to-use, the other aggressive, worse to use, but trained.
Kurt z Václavky (shepperd), Cézar z Březového háje (shepperd), Brita (Carpathian wolf female) (photo: wolfdog.org)
For studies were involved several kennels. Various stations monitored:
biological properties of the litter, the question of heat, mating, pregnancy, ...
social behavior and differences in its manifestations,
different proportions from shepperds,
education hybrids alone or in coexistence together with the pupps of shepperds, differences in behavior
differences in generations F1, F2,...
Source: book of Mr.Hartl and Jedlička - Československý vlčák
|Wolf female Brita x Cézar z Brězového háje|
In 1957 in the kennel z Pohraniční stráže started the heat of wolf female, but it failed to mate her - she hide herself and they can not find out the right date for mating. In 1958, the wolf female was in heat again and was put the first dog calm nature to her, which was 4 weeks before standing next to her pen. Wolf female attacked him and tore a piece of skin. It is possible that here played the role natural selection - a weak individual and living side by the female - in the wild relatives is that a risk. Then they put to her directly the aggressive dog. When she tried to attack him, the dog defended, grabbed her by the neck and a couple of times shook with her. Her behavior has changed and allowed to mate. At 63th day, 26.5.1958 at night, gave birth wolf Brita mated to dog Cézar z Brězového háje to 5 puppies (1 male and 4 females) - Brent, Brita, Bono, Betty, Bessy (photo at right). It is interesting that in all 4 litters was born 5 puppies.
Wolf female pretended her pupps from handler and do not trust him, but during pregnancy was he welcomed. In one month of age they started feeding from the stomach. Puppies had the same day plan during the day - about 10 minutes play outdoors, feeding for about 6 minutes in the kennel and hide to rest for about an hour. Then again the game and food. With age, periods were longer, especially in the game, but also sleep. Very early could to be recognized in games that puppies encourage strongest in playing and hierarchy could be observed around 5 weeks.
For further breeding purposes for Libějovice kennel was selected female Beta (F1 - the photo on the left) and female for kennel Šamorín Berta (F1). (photo source: website kennel z Molu Es).
From the female Bety were bred litters of F2-F4 generation. For next breeding was used F2 Barka (born 03.03.1961) and her son F3 Hron (born 03.12.1962). In kennel Šamorín (later Malacky), was F1 Berta mated to shepperd Haso zo Šamorína, where on 20.02.1960 born F2 generation puppues, female Osa and Ona z PS and males Odin, Old and Onyx z PS, who were in age of 19 months taken back to Libějovice. Without this moving, were no more breeding possible in Czech.
Old and Odin z PS helped in breeding also by first civilian breeders from Czech, Mr.Driml, Stehlík, Brožek, Beroušek, Sabo, Strnad, Veselý and Dr. Kafka.
Osa z PS was used for breeding in czech kennels thru her daughter Capka F3 (born 03.09.1961), granddaughter Aneta F4 (born 02.09.1963) and grandgranddaughter Dura F5 (born 14.06.1965). For using of offspring of Osa z PS in civilian kennels in Czech acknowledge Mr.Kincl.
Female F2 Osa z PS was after one litter returned to Czech to Bratislava brigade PS. Here she created thrue her daughters a big family. From 66 males and 40 females, was in breeding used Kača F3 (born 06.11.1962) thrue her daughter Tira F4 (born 03.03.1966) and son Grin F4 (born 30.07.1968).
|Wolf female Brita x Kurt z Václavky|
On 21. 5. 1960 were in Libějovice crosses F1 born. There were 5 puppies (4 males and 1 female) – Bek, Bigan, Bikar, Bill, Bima . Male Bikar F1 was on purpose of Mr.Rosík, as 2 months old puppy given to kennel z Pohraniční stráže Slovakia. In Malacky was he used for two matings of shepperds Onda z PS and Nina z PS. From his many offspring was used the most Santa and Sito F2 (born 06.03.1967), Tila and Tiva F2 (born 31.03.1967), and F3 crosses Ciko, Odra, Xida, Xela and Sina.
The experiment was closed in 1965 and it has show, that most of the mixes have potential for next breeding. By the first mixes was shown, that they can be trained and socialized for people and in year 1966 were after F2 male Odin taken into army work 16 dogs and to civilists - breeders went 18 dogs. Registration to civil register (breed book) of these dogs was refused.
|Wolf Argo x Asta z SNB|
In 1966 it was proposed first version of standard, first application for registration of hybrids in the breeding book and consent to the creation of club. Then union refused it.
Puppies from combination wolf Argo and shepperd Asta z SNB were born in 1968 in kennel in Býchory in Central Czech republic and crosses began to be called as the Czech Wolfdog. Female F1 Ura z SNB and her son Ink z SNB were used for next breeding.
From the first mating was choosen for next breeding female F1 Ura SNB. She was more times mated with sheppers Ajax von Altenplen. From the first mating was for next breeding choosen male F2 Ink z SNB and was with his mother Ura SNB given to kennel PS in Libějovice. Here was the mating repeat and from the litter choosen female F2 Bara z PS.
For the next breeding was used Ink z SNB and Bara z PS, who was choosen by Mr.Rosík and given from Libějovice to kennel PS Malacky, what saved them from liquidation.
In august 1968 was a change in the function of head chief of PS and in the other kennels of PS in Czech was the breeding of the mixes closed. Some sacrificial civilian breeders, who continue the breeding in Czech, lost the needed help from outside and their breeding was lost. In 26.05.1970 asked again Mr.Hartl for recognition, but it was again refused, despite 56 bred mixes.
After year 1971 was the breeding of the mixes in Czech fully closed. Breeding was open again on 11.08.1981, when the first litter was born by Mr.Vladimír Mádle from Kolín, after female Zilka z PS, who was bred in kennel PS in Slovakia. Here were the mixes used as working dogs in unit PS.
Cynologist from Bratislava brigade PS was also Major František Rosík, for whom the breeding of Czechoslovakian wolfdogs became the life work and thank to him, created the conditions to breeding in 70-ties. In this times was by kennel PS Malacky created a circle of army and also civilian breeders and with this created a breeding base for next breeding.
|Xela z Pohraniční stráže (F3) x Šarik (wolf), Urta z Pohraniční stráže x Šarik (wolf)|
In 1974, the program added the third wolf - Šarik (read Sharik). His offsprings have been applied in breeding mainly from matings with Xela and Urta z Pohraniční stráže. (photo: Šarik and Xela, Slovenská kynológia, história a súčasnosť).
From this mating of F3 Xela z PS, was used Xavan, but mainly his sons Cirus and Rep z Pohraničnej stráže and his grandson Brest z PS. Rep was very long time template of breed standard and bred up to 250 offsprings, which is in so rare breed huge performance, but also increase the inbreeding coefficient of most wolfdogs. Today we find him in every pedigrees of the breed. His wolf's blood was 42%.
From mating with Urta z PS with Carphatian wolf Šarik was used for next breeding female Eida z PS and her sons Afír z PS and Amúr z PS, which offsprings were bred in civilian kennels. Breeders from Slovakia believed in the good characteristics of the new created breed. In the civilian breeding participated also Ing. Sopúch, Beleš, Dr. Švec, Klčo, Fuska, Budinský, Blaho, Richnovský, Pipáš, Szalay, but also breeders from Czech and Morava Mr.Mádle, Smrčka, Šimáčková, Čížek and others. Thank to kennel PS Slovakia, all living animals commed from Slovakia. This sufficiently large population of animals allowed to fulfill a long-standing efforts of breeders - the establishment of the club.
Rep z Pohraniční stráže (photo: wolfdog.org)
To the finishing the breeding of the new breed was on the meeting in 20.03.1982 Brno created a Breeding club of Czechoslovakian wolfdogs, the chairman was Mr. František Rosík. Federal union of breeding clubs ČSSR with Mr.Mikuláš Račkaj on head, the chairman of central breeding union, confirmed a creation of Club in 02.04.1982 with the sitting in Prague and office in Bratislava.
The main aim after the establishment of the club, was to continue breeding of CSW, achieve that for their good qualities inherited from the Carpathian wolf and shepperds can been ranked among the breeds recognized by the FCI. Into CsW stud book since creating of the breeding club ČSCH to 01.01.1991, and from 01.01.1991 to 31.03.1992 were done the entries by Mrs. Husárová with her daughter. From 01.04.1992 to 31.12.1992 entries in the book did Mr.Rosík. (drawinf of ideal CsW by Mr.Rosík, book Slovenská kynológia, história a súčasnosť)
|Wolf female Lejdy (read Lady) x Bojar von Schotterhof|
In late 1982 a group of breeders from the Czech Republic enforce the requirement of inclusion of other wolves to breed. Under the pretext of maintaining the natural structure of the population, prevent erosion of genetic resources and reduce inbreeding, in Czech already after interspecific crosses come to a new crossings, combining shepperd Bojar von Schottentrof with Carpathian wolf female from ZOO Hluboká Lejdy, which was again in the kennel PS in Libějovice in year 1983.
The selected male from this litter F1 Kazan PS was available from records three times used in breeding. This crossing was made without the consent of the club and according to the information available was not a plus for the breeding.
Kazan z Pohraniční stráže (photo: wolfdog.org)
Pohraničná stráž and the german shepperds (photo: wolfdog.org)
Furthermore, wolves were not added to the breed anymore, it was only breeding in a closed population and the offsprings are referred as the Czech Wolfdog. The Army is increasingly getting wolfdogs into civil breeding, because his training was difficult and his character was not as satisfactory as by normal dogs.
From the experiment can be drawn some conclusions as follows:
wolf and dog breeding is possible
it is easier to cross a male with a she-wolf as a wolf with dog female
for the mating is appropriate to choose a dog strong and active in the defense
soon separating of crosses from wolf mother is better and holding them on their own, the more we suppress wolf characteristics
in the first generation crosses correspond anatomically and physiologically more wolf than dog
the next generation effect is more pronounced the effect of anatomical then physiological
second-generation hybrids are able to train, active defense response is later than by the shepherd, great orientation is developed, especially at night. In the third generation hybrids are developed as shepherds and by tracking are better.
endurance is much higher, and especially at higher temperatures
coat is substantially better than by shepherd, the third generation of the wolf's fur possesses predominantly
results of exercise are significantly higher if he works exclusively separately, higher bond creates between the trainer and dog
Conclusions that must be explored:
degree of durability and life skills due to physical age
to what level of crossing will show the anatomical features of the wolf
what summary of characteristics gives to the cross endurance against dog
the extent to which inbreeding can be used to consolidate the achievements of anatomical and physiological characteristics and properties
will be achieved in hybrids less variability in the structure, degree of higher nervous activity as by the shepherds?
First bonitation and youth presentation of CsW was in november 1982 in Zochova chata in Malé Karpaty. The documents for the registration of the breed were prepared. The final standard was prepared in Bratislava and the FCI commision started to its acceptation on 13.06.1989.The standard got the number 332.
With the separation of Czech and Slovakia, was set, that the Czechoslovakia will stay country of orgin and Slovakia has the patronate. The standard number is since 08.04.1994 - 332.
To the crating of breed have contributed with his blood within 25 years 4 wolves:
Brita, Argo (without a photo), Šarik, Lejdy.